Astronaut Arterial Stiffness and Insulin Resistance

Is exercise really the best medicine…in space? In this fascinating podcast, Consulting Editor David Gutterman (Medical College of Wisconsin) interviews lead author Richard Hughson (University of Waterloo) and content expert Walter Wray (University of Utah) about the latest work by Hughson and co-authors on how zero gravity alters vascular stiffness and insulin resistance, particularly in vessels in the head and neck. This latest work from Hughson and colleagues has important implications for long-term spaceflight, like missions to Mars and space station inhabitation. In addition, comparisons to bed rest studies make the case that acute changes in vascular stiffness may be treated with exercise, but how much is enough? With the recent completion of NASA astronaut Scott Kelly’s year in space, this podcast is not only timely, it is literally “out of this world.” Listen now.


Richard L. Hughson, Andrew D. Robertson, Philippe Arbeille, J. Kevin Shoemaker, James W. E. Rush, Katelyn S. Fraser, Danielle K. Greaves Increased postflight carotid artery stiffness and inflight insulin resistance resulting from 6-mo spaceflight in male and female astronauts Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, published March 1, 2016. DOI: 10.1152/ajpheart.00802.2015.

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Gender Differences in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure

Do we need to better understand gender differences in order to understand the pathophysiology of heart failure? Yes, according to a new study by Nakada et al. In the English version of this dual language podcast, listen as Associate Editor Masafumi Kitakaze interviews lead author Yoshihiko Saito (Nara Medical University) and guest expert Tomoko Ichiki (Mayo Clinic) about the work by Saito and colleagues, which analyzed the differences in prognostic power of plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels in men and women, as well as gender differences in age and ejection fraction distribution among heart failure patients. How do the results of Saito and colleagues, which clearly show that the pathophysiology of heart failure differs between men and women, impact potential clinical treatment strategies? Listen and learn more.


Yasuki Nakada, Rika Kawakami, Tomoya Nakano, Akihiro Takitsume, Hitoshi Nakagawa, Tomoya Ueda, Taku Nishida, Kenji Onoue, Tsunenari Soeda, Satoshi Okayama, Yukiji Takeda, Makoto Watanabe, Hiroyuki Kawata, Hiroyuki Okura, Yoshihiko Saito Gender Differences in Clinical Characteristics and Long-Term Outcome in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure Patients with Preserved and Reduced Ejection Fraction Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, published online January 8, 2016, DOI: 10.1152/ajpheart.00602.2015.

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JAPANESE LANGUAGE PODCAST: Gender Differences in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure

Do we need to better understand gender differences in order to understand the pathophysiology of heart failure? Yes, according to a new study by Nakada et al. In the Japanese version of this dual language podcast, listen as Associate Editor Masafumi Kitakaze interviews lead author Yoshihiko Saito (Nara Medical University) and guest expert Tomoko Ichiki (Mayo Clinic) about the work by Saito and colleagues, which analyzed the differences in prognostic power of plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels in men and women, as well as gender differences in age and ejection fraction distribution among heart failure patients. How do the results of Saito and colleagues, which clearly show that the pathophysiology of heart failure differs between men and women, impact potential clinical treatment strategies? Listen and learn more.


Yasuki Nakada, Rika Kawakami, Tomoya Nakano, Akihiro Takitsume, Hitoshi Nakagawa, Tomoya Ueda, Taku Nishida, Kenji Onoue, Tsunenari Soeda, Satoshi Okayama, Yukiji Takeda, Makoto Watanabe, Hiroyuki Kawata, Hiroyuki Okura, Yoshihiko Saito Gender Differences in Clinical Characteristics and Long-Term Outcome in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure Patients with Preserved and Reduced Ejection Fraction Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, published online January 8, 2016, DOI: 10.1152/ajpheart.00602.2015.

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Sitting and Endothelial Dysfunction

Is a stand-desk healthier for your arteries? Listen to this intriguing new podcast about endothelial dysfunction due to a reduction in blood flow and shear stress following prolonged periods of sitting. Associate Editor Nancy Kanagy (University of New Mexico School of Medicine) interviews lead author Jaume Padilla (University of Missouri) and guest expert Lee Stoner (Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand) about the work by Restaino et al, which utilized local heating to alleviate the normal reduction in shear stress that occurs with prolonged sitting in healthy male subjects. Did the heating protocol prevent post-sitting decreases in endothelium dilation? What do Padilla and colleagues speculate is the primary mechanistic pathway by which reduction in blood flow in shear stress results in an impairment in endothelium-dilation? What are the public health ripple effects here, in particular for spinal cord injury patients and people suffering from peripheral artery disease? We tackle these questions and more. Listen now.


Robert M. Restaino, Lauren K. Walsh, Takuma Morishima, Jennifer R. Vranish, Luis A. Martinez-Lemus, Paul J. Fadel, Jaume Padilla Endothelial dysfunction following prolonged sitting is mediated by a reduction in shear stress Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, published March 1, 2016, DOI: 10.1152/ajpheart.00943.2015.

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