Archive for December 2015

What do deep space travel and AJP-Heart and Circ have in common? This podcast. Listen as Associate Editor Leon De Windt interviews lead author David Goukassian (Boston University School of Medicine) and content expert Martin E. Young (University of Alabama at Birmingham) about the intriguing new study by Coleman et al. Goukassian and his team studied the effects of low dose, full body, low energy radiation on heart physiology. This type of radiation is relevant for radiotherapy and for future deep space travel by astronauts when mankind starts exploring our galaxy. At a dose of 0.15 Grey iron particles, cardiomyocytes demonstrated long-lived changes in gene expression consistent with inflammatory and free radical scavenging gene ontologies. We discussed how space travel could disrupt our circadian rhythm, our natural 24 hour day/night cycle. In addition, this study give clues as to which regions of deep space we should avoid in order to protect our circadian rhythm. Finally, we speculated about the existence of radiation-specific diagnostic markers, and how anti-inflammatory agents may be used in the future for treatment of radiation-induced tissue damage. Listen-- it is fascinating.

Matthew A. Coleman, Sharath P. Sasi, Jillian Onufrak, Mohan Natarajan, Krishnan Manickam, John Schwab, Sujatha Muralidharan, Leif E. Peterson, Yuriy O. Alekseyev, Xinhua Yan, David A. Goukassian Low-dose radiation affects cardiac physiology: gene networks and molecular signaling in cardiomyocytes Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, published December 1, 2015, DOI: 10.1152/ajpheart.00050.2015.

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Timing is everything, and so it was with calpastatin overexpression used to inhibit calpain activity and impair post-MI scar formation. In this podcast, Deputy Editor Merry Lindsey (University of Mississippi Medical Center) interviews lead author Barnabas Gellen (CHU de Poitiers) and content expert Gerd Heusch (Universitatsklinikum Essen) in an engaging discussion about the recent work by Wan et al. This study, which evolved from an initially planned long-term experiment to focus on short-term remodeling effects, is a great example of results refining evaluation parameters. In terms of experimental design strategy, find out how permanent coronary occlusion compares to ischemia reperfusion. “Mechanism comes first, and then we can translate it,” said Heusch. “So, both models have their value.” The exciting results of this study lead Gellen and colleagues to ask: when should we start calpain inhibition, when should we stop calpain inhibition, how much inhibitory effect is beneficial, and in which cell types? Listen to find out.

Feng Wan, Emmanuel Letavernier, Claude Jourdan Le Saux, Amal Houssaini, Shariq Abid, Gabor Czibik, Daigo Sawaki, Elisabeth Marcos, Jean-Luc Dubois-Rande, Laurent Baud, Serge Adnot, Geneviève Derumeaux, Barnabas Gellen Calpastatin overexpression impairs postinfarct scar healing in mice by compromising reparative immune cell recruitment and activation Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, published December 1, 2015. DOI: 10.1152/ajpheart.00594.2015.

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