Archive for November 2020

Does the loss of functional estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) remove female protection from adverse remodeling? We know that right ventricular function is preserved in women with pulmonary arterial hypertension compared to men. While ERα has been identified as a likely mediator of cardioprotection in the right ventricle, the exact role of ERα in preserving right ventricular function and remodeling in pressure overload is not well understood. In this episode Guest Editor Kristine DeLeon-Pennell (Medical University of South Carolina) interviews lead author Naomi Chesler (University of California Irvine) and expert Jessica Faulkner (Augusta University) about a new study by Cheng et al that utilized a sex-independent pulmonary arterial banding model in both female and male ERα mutant rats to investigate sex-dependent differences in right ventricular response to pressure overload. In females, ERα is protective against right ventricular pulmonary vascular uncoupling, diastolic dysfunction, and fibrosis in response to pressure overload. However, the authors did not observe the same effects in males. Given that only the ERα mutant females showed a dramatic fibrotic response, were the authors surprised by what their RNA sequencing analysis revealed? Listen and find out.

 

Tik-Chee Cheng, Jennifer L Philip, Diana Marcela Tabima, Santosh Kumari, Bakhtiyor Yakubov, Andrea L Frump, Timothy A. Hacker, Alessandro Bellofiore, Rongbo Li, Xin Sun, Kara N. Goss, Tim Lahm, Naomi Chesler Estrogen Receptor Alpha Prevents Right Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction and Fibrosis in Female Rats  Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, published October 16, 2020. DOI: doi.org/10.1152/ ajpheart.00247.2020

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Formaldehyde Exposure Decreases Vascular Function

What are the short-term vascular consequences of formaldehyde exposure in healthy female adults? In our latest podcast episode, Guest Editor Matthew Gorr (The Ohio State University) interviews lead author Stephen Ratchford (Appalachian State University) and expert Thiago Bruder (University of Pittsburgh) about the recent work by Augenreich et al, which was published as part of the AJP-Heart and Circulatory Physiology Call for Papers on Environmental Inhalants and Cardiovascular Disease. Utilizing a natural exposure model that measured via ultrasound the vascular response of students exposed to formaldehyde during their cadaver dissection laboratory coursework, Ratchford and co-authors found significantly decreased flow mediated dilation in the brachial artery, yet no changes in microvascular function. Ratchford and colleagues determined that only one short-term exposure to formaldehyde can have detrimental effects on vascular health. What is the significance of these finding for people exposed to formaldehyde for longer periods of time, such as instructors in cadaver dissection courses? Formaldehyde is a common preservative used in many industries, such as the cosmetic, lumber and construction industries. What are the implications related to occupational and environmental safety standards? Listen now.

 

Marc Andrew Augenreich, Jonathon Lee Stickford, Nina Stute, Laurel Kaitlyn Koontz, Janet M. Cope, Cynthia Bennett, Stephen M. Ratchford Vascular Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress Caused by Acute Formaldehyde Exposure in Female Adults  Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, published October 16, 2020. DOI: doi.org/10.1152/ ajpheart.00605.2020

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