AJP-Heart and Circulatory Physiology Podcasts

Incorporating Sex as a Biological Variable into Basic and Clinical Research Studies

March 18, 2022

Despite the establishment of NIH guidelines for inclusion of women in clinical studies, as well as clear expectations for rigor and reproducibility in reporting sex as a biological variable in NIH grant submissions, women and females are still understudied populations in human and animal research. Enter this important primer on incorporating sex as a biological variable into basic and clinical research. Listen as Consulting Editor Austin Robinson, PhD (Assistant Professor, Neurovascular Physiology Laboratory, Auburn University) interviews lead author Quin Denfeld, PhD, RN (Assistant Professor, School of Nursing and Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, School of Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University) and women’s health expert Judith Regensteiner, PhD (Director of the Ludeman Family Center for Women’s Health Research and Professor of Medicine, Divisions of Internal Medicine and Cardiology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus).  Denfeld and co-authors heeded the call to action outlined in the recent editorial by the AJP-Heart and Circ Editors on “Reinforcing rigor and reproducibility expectations for use of sex and gender in cardiovascular research”, along with its accompanying podcast episode and Call for Papers on Considering Sex as a Biological Variable in Cardiovascular Research


In their Perspective article, Denfeld et al. offered practical and actionable ideas for how to include women and females in research studies, demystifying the process for fellow researchers by addressing common concerns such as sample size, cost, statistical analysis, and study participant recruitment challenges. In this episode, our experts tackled these subjects head on, championing the value of looking at data, even pilot data, through the lens of sex differences.


Don’t miss hearing about career development opportunities available to researchers from the NIH Office of Research on Women’s Health and Building Interdisciplinary Research Careers in Women’s Health (BIRCWH) Program.  Including both sexes and genders in research studies is not difficult to accomplish with foresight, planning, and perhaps a little creative thinking. This insightful conversation is invaluable to all researchers. Listen now.


Recommended Reading in AJP-Heart and Circ:

Quin E. Denfeld, Christopher S. Lee, and Beth A. Habecker  A primer on incorporating sex as a biological variable into the conduct and reporting of basic and clinical research studies Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, published February 8, 2022. DOI: 10.1152/ajpheart.00605.2021


Austin T. Robinson, Megan M. Wenner, Kanokwan Bunsawat, Joseph C. Watso, Gabrielle E. W. Giersch, and Nisha Charkoudian When it’s time for the sex talk, words matter  Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, published December 13, 2021. DOI: 10.1152/ajpheart.00556.2021


Special Article Collection on Considering Sex as a Biological Variable


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